The patient, a female Turkish citizen, would have turned 27 in April. She was the fifth woman in the world to have an artificial windpipe transplant carried out by the now-discredited thoracic surgeon Paolo Macchiarini. She died in a hospital in the United States.
Macchiarini carried out experimental surgery without the required permits, and without prior animal testing. Apart from the three patients who had surgery at the Karolinska Hospital, Macchiarini operated on five patients in Russia, four of whom have died.