Germany asked the lab in Sweden, and a lab in France, to independently test for the substance.
Åsa Scott at the Defence Research Agency (FOI) tells Radio Sweden why her lab was selected to carry out the tests, and what they found:
There is no doubt whatsoever that it was Novichok in our analysis results",
Germany has responded to the Swedish and French confirmations by repeating the demand that Russia explains itself, while the Russian government denies responsibility.
Press play to hear more.