Skåne University Hospital has tested nearly 20,000 people in the region. The screenings detect arteries that are hardening and are at risk of a rupture, which can be life-threatening.
In the poverty-stricken area of Rosengård, 70 percent of men turned up to the screenings, compared to nearly 90 percent in other Skåne municipalities.
"Maybe they have other worries," Alaa Alhadad, an associate professor at the hospital, told Swedish radio.
"Many of them have ben in wars, and other problems may stop them from getting involved," Alhadad added.
He has been out in the urban areas to inform people about the need to attend screenings.
Moncef Zarrouk, the doctor and PhD student who has carried out the research, said the risk of ruptured arteries is also higher in the areas where fewer people turn up to the screenings.
He also said that smoking is one of the major causes of ruptured arteries.