Swedish Radio surveyed 107 areas of housing, covering 59,000 apartments built as part of the "million programme" project during 1965-75. Almost all of the local housing companies say they will raise rents to cover the renovations.
According to the Swedish housing agency Boverket, costs may be as high as SEK 300 billion over the next ten years. In one area of Uppsala rents have gone up by almost half again.
Analyst Georg Hardt at the tenants' union says that "we're seeing what you might call a mass migration from these areas."