The 54-year-old man was detained on Monday evening after his car broke down on the E4 highway outside of Linköping. He was alone in the car.
At first, the man lied about his identity, but police described the arrest as calm. He was brought to the police station in Linköping to be questioned before being returned to the psychiatric hospital.
"We want some clarity on what happened while he was on the run and whether he has committed any crimes," Fredrik Wallén of the local police told news agency TT.
The man has received psychiatric care at the Karsudden hospital for 26 years. He escaped while on supervised leave.