The government wants children to enter compulsory schooling at the age of six instead of seven. Pupils who do not achieve pass grades after 10 years of school may need to take an additional year of compulsory classes, according to the new proposal.
The government also wants to introduce compulsory summer schools for pupils who are "close to achieving pass grades".
The school debate in Sweden intensified in late 2013 after results from the latest Pisa study showed that Swedish pupils fell below the OECD averages in mathematics, natural sciences and literacy.
At the time, Minister of Education Jan Björklund said the results were serious but that the government's school reforms had not yet had time to take effect.