The findings, published in the British Medical Journal on Wednesday, showed those with a higher milk intake – whether full-fat or skimmed – "may be associated with a higher rate of death" and women may suffer more bone fractures.
"Women who consumed three glasses or more per day had a 90 percent higher risk of death, 60 percent higher risk of hip fracture and 15 percent higher risk of any fracture compared to those who drank less than a glass," co-author Karl Michaelsson of Uppsala University told Radio Sweden.
Men, however, did not see the same difference in death and injury rates.
The study followed nearly 110,000 middle-aged and elderly Swedes for 11 years. The researchers said further work was needed before any conclusions or recommendations on milk consumption could be made, although Karl Michaelsson told Radio Sweden that he had now switched from milk to yoghurt.